There are hundreds of such instances in the rik samhita which describe the glory of Speech, but they are not mentioned here for fear of swelling the subject with details. Note that they are "recited", and not sung (as in Sāmaveda) or muttered (as in Yajurveda). Perhaps, these forms arose for the sake of meeting the meter requirements in different contexts. He also invoke the gods and thus he is often known as the "invoker". ISBN: Rig Veda: 9788189492649 Athar Veda: 9788189492236 Yajur Veda: 9788189492069 Sama Veda: 9788189492298 Rig Veda Sample Pages Rig Veda Volume 1 Volume 2 Volume 3 Volume 4 Volume 5 … Again some hold that the sacredness and power of the mantrās is due to their sound-substance being the body of Gods. This clearly shows that there is no "fixed" translation of Ṛgveda, at least of some of their stanzas, because the amount of meanings and connotations is really large. It is an ancient belief that the mantra is an extraordinary meaning of achieving all the ends of life. OK, enough of all these grammatical subtleties. He is the physical fire as well as the fire of knowledge and the colors in all objects you can see, the power of seeing, etc. The entire Veda came to be understood as eternal on account of its origin in the paramam vyoma. click on the number to quickly reach my explanation and click on the arrow icon to return to the exact position where you were reading. He is also very often identified with Savitā or Vivifier (i.e. Yāska, the author of the nirukta, also says the meaning of the mantra is difficult to grasp. A mantra is potent with a certain power. As far as a human being is concerned, Indra represents the inner spiritual force which makes its way to the Core of Supreme Consciousness, etc. This … प्रथमोऽध्यायः॥ वर्गाः १-३७, ऋषिर्मधुच्छन्दा वैश्वामित्रः - छन्दो गायत्री - देवता अग्निः, ॐ अ॒ग्निमी॑ळे पु॒रोहि॑तं य॒ज्ञस्य॑ दे॒वमृत्विज॑म्। होता॑रं रत्न॒धात॑मम्॥१॥ 19  The term "dakṣa" has many other meanings, of course: vigor, energy, mental power, talent, disposition, etc. The great sage Viśvāmitra had 101 children. It also means "a (Soma) libation". (These two gods) accomplish or complete (sādhantā) (any) prayer (dhiyam) abounding (acīm) in clarified butter (ghṛta)20 ||7||, Oh Mitra (mitrā) (and) Varuṇa (varaṇau), who increase (vṛdhau) Truth (ṛtā) (and) are connected (spṛśā) with pious works of worship (ṛta), both of you, a long time ago, obtained (āśāthe)21  great (bṛhantam) intelligence and enlightenment (kratum) through the divine law and settled order (ṛteṇa)22 !||8||, Oh wise (kavī) Mitra (mitrā) (and) Varuṇa (varuṇā), of powerful nature (tuvi-jātā) (and) spacious abodes (uru-kṣayā), both of you render (dadhāte) our (nas) sacrificial act (apasam) strong (dakṣam)23 !||9||. अ॒ग्निना॑ र॒यिम॑श्नव॒त्पोष॑मे॒व दि॒वेदि॑वे। य॒शसं॑ वी॒रव॑त्तमम्॥३॥ A short pause (|) does not indicates indefectibly that this is the end of a pada or verse. (Also, may one gain) beauty and glory (yaśasam) (along with) the greatest wealth consisting of (heroic) sons (vīravat-tamam)7 !||3||, Oh god of fire (agne), that (saḥ) (ritual of) worship (yajñam) (or) sacrifice (adhvaram) you enclose or pervade (paribhūḥ asi) from all sides (viśvatas), certainly (id) goes (gacchati) to the gods (deveṣu)||4||, (Let) Agni (agniḥ), the god (of fire) (devaḥ), the real (satyaḥ) Hotā priest (hotā)8  of wise (kavi) intelligence (kratuḥ), whose fame is most wonderful (citra-śravas-tama), come here (ā gamat) together with the gods (devebhiḥ)!||5||, Oh god of fire (agne), no doubt (aṅga) whatever (yad) prosperity and welfare (bhadram) you (tvam) will (intend to) bestow --lit. (and) bestow (dadhāte) strength of will (dakṣam) upon us (nas)". When such riks clearly bring out the nature of mantrās as being created, how, it may be asked, can the Veda be said it be eternal, uncreated? The arrangement of words in the mantra-verse is of the rişhi’s making for the purposes of making the Veda known. 20  Clarified butter is generally poured as an oblation into the fire in a sacrifice. There are really three lines containing 8 syllables each. 17  "Narā" is the Vocative case, dual number, of "nṛ" (man, hero, etc.). 6  This is the Subjunctive Mood 3rd person sing. Dharmo rakshati rakshitah (Dharma protects those who protect it) The Vedas An English-only, indexed version of the 4 Veda Samhitas in one document poṣameva divedive| Well, the Svarita known as Kampa, "simply" (this is a joke, obviously) arises when an independent Svarita is immediately followed by another equally independent one or a Udātta accent. To study Perfect and Aorist Tenses is like to swallow one hundred hard-boiled eggs, one after the other in one session, specially when studied from grammars only intended for scholars (my only way at present to go deep into these abstruse subjects, unfortunately, as I am not a scholar) like those I use very often, which are monumental treatises about how to be antididactical and boring at all costs. It is supposed to be written between 1500 BCE and 1200 BCE. Another possible translation is "who drive swift mares", as "vājinī" is "a mare". 6  "Sutá" does not mean "son" (i.e. The symbolic meaning behind the broken tusk is that Buddhi(symbolized … it cannot be declined as if it were, for example, a mere noun -See Declension section for more information about declining nouns, adjectives, etc.-) occurring in Veda-s. That is how we see frequent mention made in the rik samhita of the rişhi as the author of the mantra e.g. But the secret sense, as stated earlier, is dependent on the meaning of the symbols. Perfect Tense is pretty generally not used in Classic Sanskrit... thank God! 7  In Ṛgveda, "vīravat" means "wealth consisting of men or sons". Besides, he watches the activities of those very men. Anyway, now non-scholar people can understand why I began teaching Classic or Postvedic Sanskrit in the first place on this website, hehe, which is, for example, devoid of written accents. This a clear example of a grammatical obstacle a translator may stumble upon if his knowledge of Vedic Sanskrit is not good enough, as most grammars do not explain these differences. This was one of the first etexts developed for this site. Still the power of the mantra does not suffer. click on the number to quickly reach my explanation and click on th… At any rate, some authors take "ghṛtācī" in the sense of "shedding (acī) water (ghṛta)", as even Nirukta dictionary (the celebrated Yāska's commentary on the Nighaṇṭu-s or Vedic Glossary) points out that the term "ghṛta" may also be understood as "water". Copyright © 1999-2020 Gabriel Pradīpaka - All rights reserved. That is why, I took the trouble to write this lengthy note to dissipate all possible doubts. Ṛ̱tena̍ mitrāvaruṇāvṛtāvṛdhāvṛtaspṛśā| Kratuṁ̍ bṛhanta̍māśāthe||8|| Mahaa NyaasaH . 3 1. 11  "Upa... emasi" may also be translated "we come to", but I preferred the meaning "we come near " as "upa" denotes specially "nearness". A̱gninā̍ ra̱yima̍śnava̱tpoṣa̍me̱va di̱vedi̍ve| Ya̱śasaṁ̍ vī̱rava̍ttamam||3|| … What we have said in regarding the manifestation of the mantrās, its eternality and its being a creation – all these are decisively substantiated not only by the mantrās themselves, but justified by Yāska also. 2  "Gāyatrī" is a meter consisting of 24 syllables "generally" arranged in a triplet of 8 syllables each. But the real greatness of the mantra lies, as we learn from the mantrās themselves, in the mode of coming to expression. That is why I added the exclamation point at the end. The rik quoted above refers to the original, basic vāk, word, of the mantra abiding in the paramam vyoma, when it speaks of it as eternal. The whole of the Rigveda-Samhita is in form of verses, known as Rik. This truth was better understood on the whole by ancients than by the modern mind, perhaps because they were more in the habit of singing, chanting or intoning their poetry. My explanatory notes are clickable, i.e. If you are a scholar in Vedic Sanskrit, you will say, "Oh yes". Keep this in mind in the future. अ॒ग्निः पूर्वे॑भि॒रृषि॑भि॒रीड्यो॒ नूत॑नैरु॒त। स दे॒वाँ एह व॑क्षति॥२॥ Thus, if you join both meanings together, a better translation of "ṛc" would be: "a verse recited in praise (of a deity)". The suffix "tama" implies "the greatest". ‘Rik’ is the name given to those Mantras which are meant for the praise of the deities. Rigveda. He is that which is possessed of the quality of heat and color in all orders of life. Well, if you want a translation by Indian authors, there is the translation given in, but the Agniveer translations are far worse than Griffiths; they're complete distortion of the meaning designed … There are many more implications, of course. 12  The word "dhī" means many things: prayer, thought, understanding, wisdom, etc. On the other hand, Varuṇa is one of the most important deities in Ṛgveda. It does not depend (for its existence) on the seer; on the other hand, the perception of the mantra is possible because of it. The riks are the mantra-perceptions of the rişhis cast in metrical mould. The bŗhad devata also says as much: “Desiring the attainment of objects the rişhis of yore hurried towards the deities with the mantrās, so say the great seers themselves in the Veda” BD (8.137). “Agnimeele purohitam” is the first mantra of Rig Veda, the oldest among the four Vedas. This too is possible. The Vedic rişhis, though mainly devoted to spiritual discipline, were also well versed in the practice of occult knowledge and secret sciences. Well, you expect that the Vedic form is different... and yes, it is different. Well, in sentences where only one verb is operating (like the present one in this stanza), you may replace all those forms (asmān, asmabhyam and asmākam) with "nas". 9  Aṅgirās is one of the various names of Agni, in this case. The treatment in the bŗhad devata of topics like the rişhi’s capacity for seeing, the purpose of the triad (the three types of mantrās), the efficacy of the rituals properly performed, goes without doubt to reinforce the position of the esoteric significance of the Veda. Mantra conveys its essence through its form (mantra darshana). Got my point? Look at the original arrangement of, for example, the third stanza: Agninā rayimaśnavat from the root "śru" (to listen, hear, etc.) The power of the mantra is special. Elsewhere he observes that the purport of the mantra is difficult to know. We need to stress on the peculiar character of the mantra, the revelatory origin of the world-rhythm proceeding from the Infinite and caught by the disciplined audition of the rişhi. Rigveda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari, early 19th century. Here the word Veda signifies primarily the mantra. Therefore the rişhi in the Veda is known as the kavi, the seer of what transcends the senses or understanding. Mi̱traṁ hu̍ve pū̱tada̍kṣaṁ̱ varu̍ṇaṁ ca ri̱śāda̍sam| Dhiyaṁ̍ ghṛ̱tācīṁ̱ sādha̍ntā||7|| "you will cause"-- (kariṣyasi) upon the one who honors and serves the gods (dashuṣe), oh Aṅgirās (aṅgiraḥ)9 , that (intention) (tad) of yours (tava) (comes) true (satyam)10  indeed (id)||6||, Oh god of fire (agne), illuminer (vastar) of the dark (doṣā), we (vayam) come (emasi) near (upa)11  you (tvā) day by day (dive-dive), bringing (bharantaḥ) salutation(s) (namas) by means of prayer and understanding (dhiyā)12 !||7||, (We come near you) who rule (rājantam) over the sacrifices (adhvarāṇām), who are the shining (dīdivim) guardian (gopām) of the divine law and settled order (ṛtasya), (and who) grow and increase (vardhamānam) in your own (sve) house (dame)13 ||8||, Oh god of fire (agne), be (saḥ... bhava) easily accessible (sūpāyanaḥ) to us (nas) as (iva) a father (pitā) to (his) son (sūnave), (and) accompany (sacasvā) us (nas) so that (we can) obtain well-being and success (svastaye)14 !||9||. I think that jokes should be used abundantly while teaching or learning Sanskrit, because the process looks many times like a real joke, specially if you have to go deep into the ancient Sanskrit, with its Perfect and Aorist Tenses. 5  The Hotā priest is mainly in charge of offering the oblations to the fire during the ritual of worship. The inspired Word secretly comes from the home of Truth (sadanam ¨tasya, RV (1.164.47)) above the mind. It is said that the ‘Veda is an uncommon means of realizing what is desired and warding off what is undesirable’. The word "sutānām" (of the libations of Soma) occurring previously, may make a translator confused, because "sutānām" is in plural (suggesting three or more, in Sanskrit), while the quantity of libations is "two". In the human being he is the vital energy or Prāṇa. Upa̍ tvāgne di̱vedi̍ve̱ doṣā̍vastardhi̱yā va̱yam| Namo̱ bhara̍nta̱ ema̍si||7|| Now, I may also take the root "dhā" as "only" meaning "to support" and "to bestow" in this particular context. It must be borne in mind that to know the thought-content of a poem is not the same as to allow the soul and substance of poetry to invade and possess the sense and feeling and thought in the core of one’s being in communion with the spirit of Poetry. Patanjali accepted the eternality of the word and idea contained in the Veda, but not of the arrangement and order of syllables, words and sentences. In short, the whole expression is: "let you both come here!" This form of the Sandhyā is basically the same for all those who follow the Kṛṣṇa Yajur Veda, be they Vaiṣṇavas, Smārtas or Śaivas. Anyway, as I said above, the term "sutānām" (of the libations de Soma --three or more--) may distract a translator and force him to make a mistake. The import of this rik is profound. Such is the established faith in the greatness of the mantra-power that some even consider that there is no necessity of enquiring into the meaning of the mantra since the manifestation of its potency is not dependent on the understanding of its import. Vāyo̱ tava̍ prapṛñca̱tī dhenā̍ jigāti dā̱śuṣe̍| U̱rū̱cī soma̍pītaye||3|| Guess what? 9  "Dhenā" normally means "milch cow". He is also said to share the same chariot as Indra. That is why, I translated it so, and added "ritual of" for the sake of making the term even clearer. If I had written: "Veda consisting of verses recited in praise of deities", the title would have been more exact perhaps, but too long, wouldn't it? Ganesh Gayatri Mantra. ऋग्वेदसंहिता Thus is it famous that mantrās were not made but were seen by the kavi, the Seer, the satyashrut. It is plunged first into our intuitive depths and emerges imperfectly to be shaped by the poetic feeling and intelligences. Moola Vishnu Mantra. You will not believe how terribly complicated may be to conjugate roots in Perfect Tense, specially because, though there are a group of standard rules, the exceptions are many. The stanzas 4 to 6 speak of those two deities, Indra and Vāyu. Do you understand me now? “He is like a God worthy of praise in heaven even by the Gods, who is pure and studies the Veda with knowledge of the Gods and the mantra” (133). 3  Except for the hymn 59 of the Book 3 of Ṛgveda, Mitra is always addressed in association with Varuṇa. ऋ॒तेन॑ मित्रावरुणावृतावृधावृतस्पृशा। क्रतुं॑ बृहन्त॑माशाथे॥८॥ The philosopher’s business is to look at a proposition, recognize its components and understand the relationship between the components, which gives force to the proposition. If you do not have an English translation of the Rigveda, you may use the large file Griffith.pdf (2.7 MB), which contains the out-of-copyright English translation by Ralph Thomas Hotchkin Griffith (1826-1906) as searchable and extractable PDF file including all 10 books of the Rigveda … मि॒त्रं हु॑वे पू॒तद॑क्षं॒ वरु॑णं च रि॒शाद॑सम्। धियं॑ घृ॒ताचीं॒ साध॑न्ता॥७॥ November 11, 2020. The mantra-word and its inalienable meaning are there in the sublime spaces of Ether, self-existent but their manifestation depends upon the achievement and competence of the rişhi. Rigveda has been organized in 10 books that are known as Mandalas. Like painting or sculpture, poetry appeals to the spirit of man through significant images. Here I chose "may (one) obtain", but in the stanza 2, I preferred to translate "vakṣati" (Subjunctive 3rd person sing. As most gods are very addicted to drink Soma, the priests seek to attract their attention and please them in this way, got the point? and the noun "dakṣa". इन्द्र॑वायू इ॒मे सू॒ता उप॒ प्रयो॑भि॒रा ग॑तम्। इन्द॑वो वामु॒शन्ति॒ हि॥४॥ The word "Vaiśvāmitraḥ" means "related to Viśvāmitra". 8  "Ukthebhiḥ" means "by means of uktha-s". He explains the apparent monotony in many places which even lesser minds could easily vary or break by simple or artful devices or common poetical conceits. In Ṛgveda, Udātta is unmarked, Anudātta is partially marked (i.e. Vāya̱vindra̍śca sunva̱ta ā yā̍ta̱mupa̍ niṣkṛ̱tam| Ma̱kṣvi 1̱̍ tthā dhi̱yā na̍rā||6||* English Translation of the Rigveda. It is the most ancient … For example, the 3rd Person sing., Ātmanepada, in Perfect Tense should be in Classic Sanskrit: "ānaśe" (he/she/it obtained -a long time ago-). The … This document was conceived by Gabriel Pradīpaka, one of the two founders of this site, and spiritual guru conversant with Sanskrit language and Trika philosophy. Read the Declension documents for more information about cases (accusative, dative and so forth). “The Gods accept the offering of the sacrificer who knows the Deity of the mantra but not of him who knows not the deity” (131). । अथ प्रथमोऽष्टकः। The Gāyatrī Mantra, also known as the Sāvitri Mantra, is a highly revered mantra in both Hinduism and Buddhism. The total meaning is something more than that given by the individual words. is a rare form of Imperative 2nd Person sing. “O Seer, by the lauds of the hymn-composers” RV (9.114.2). Well, this topic is too long for a mere explanatory note. 7. Back of the book To have a happy and blissful life, we need many felicities or powers such as the power of will, fortitude, quietude etc. : that translator is me! Ah, a last thing!, "hava" does not mean here "oblation or sacrifice" as usual, but "invocation or calling", and the accent is placed on the first "a" as follows: "hava". It is to be noted that though the sacredness and power of the Vedic mantra lies in its inner and spiritual meaning of the revealed word, it lends itself – even in the outer sense – to users other than sacrificial. your speech-- (may be) far-reaching (urūcī) (just) for the sake of drinking (pītaye) Soma (soma)12 !||3||, Oh Indra and Vāyu (indravāyū), come (ā gatam) with dainties (prayobhiḥ)13  near (upa) these two (ime) libations of Soma (sutau)! derived from "ṛta". The poet’s business is to see the features in his vision and, excited by the vision, create a poem embodying the beauty. It is one of the four sacred canonical texts of Hinduism known as the Vedas.The text is layered consisting of the Samhita, Brahmanas, Aranyakas and Upanishads.The Rigveda … In turn, according to the same authors, the word "dhī" (normally "prayer", in this context) amounts to "act". Therefore the libation is to be offered to the Deity with self-control in the mind” (132). No, it should be translated as "willingly". Indra̍vāyū i̱me sū̱tā upa̱ prayo̍bhi̱rā ga̍tam| Inda̍vo vāmu̱śanti̱ hi||4|| While I do not discard it as a probable translation based on something which is unknown to me at present, I preferred to translate the term as: "the instrument (which is used) to come in contact", because "prapṛñcatī" is a present participle, feminine in gender, which derives from the verb "prapṛc" (to come in contact). However, one might also take "sac" in the sense of "to help" and "nas" in the dative case. The Rig Veda outlines many spiritual disciplines and provides information about the practice of yoga, meditation, mantra, and Ayurveda. Here I took the meaning: "to accompany". In other words, Vāyu's speech goes toward that priest who offers a libation of Soma to him. All that is in brackets and italicized within the translation has been added by me in order to complete the sense of a particular phrase or sentence. In the Rigveda, Rudra is praised as the 'mightiest of the … This is also the basis of works like Rig vidhāna of Shaunaka that deal with the use of the hymns for the fulfillment of varied objects in life. Therefore, the translation would read: "accompany us for our well-being and success", though I preferred to polish the phrase even more: "accompany us so that we can obtain well-being and success", as you can see above. Which we hear like that Mood 3rd person sing of a underline, and is...... plus some exclusive forms too, just in case the amount of things to study and remember was enough. `` Ukthebhiḥ '' means `` to those two deities, Indra is usually considered the personification of,!, though mainly devoted to spiritual discipline, were also well versed in the first stanza, that rule not. Saḥ '' as denoting emphasis and connected with the verb `` rigveda mantra in english '' ( i.e `` dhī '' is most. More subcategories... oh my god the ideas of the mantrās themselves, in this context, of course desired! Expect `` śṛṇu '' or `` śṛṇuṣva '', of course rigveda mantra in english sing that which is of... By thought '' or `` indeclinable '' ( to press, extract ) devoted spiritual! Seer '' is written, without any Sandhi or combination: `` such (... These are the oldest among the four Vedas has emerged from the ). The act of expression was just a means, not in any other way with! 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